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Dzisiaj jest: Środa, 11 Grudzień 2019     Imieniny: Damazego i Waldemara     Pogoda:
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Jesteś na: Strona główna / English version / History

History

Although today’s Knurów received municipal rights relatively not so long ago – in 1951, as a result of connecting Krywald and Szczygłowice, its history is much richer.

Church of St. LawrenceThe first mention of Knurów are from “The Book of Endowment of the Wrocław Episcopate” at the turn of 13th and 14th century. In that period Knurów was an organized settlement, a part of the Gliwice land. Between 15th and 17th century the fortunes of Knurów were similar to those of whole Upper Silesia, which frequently changed its owners, belonging to different monarchies. One of the oldest structures preserved from that period is a 15-th century wooden church named after Saint Lawrence (in 1936 was moved to Chorzów).

Beautiful MadonnaThe church has an original interior, which among others includes sculptures of Saint Anna Samotrzecia, Saint Wawrzyniec and Beautiful Madonna from Knurów. The latter, dating from ca 1420, is apart from Madonna from Krużlowa one of the two sculptures in Poland presenting mediaeval Madonnas (all statues from Knurów are now housed in the Archidiocesan Museum in Katowice). Major changes in the town history occurred in 19th century, marked by the process of industrialization. From a typical rural settlement Knurów turned into an  industrial centre.  The former settlement development was enriched with new structures. Against this background stood out a manor with a pond, built in the mid of 19th century in the knights’ land (the considerably changed structure now provides the premises for the seat of NOT and Mining Tradition Chamber of “Knurów” Coal-mine in Dworcowa StreGunpowder workset).

Owing to the dynamic development of mining as well as growing demand for gunpowder material, in 1875 the first factory was built - powder magazine in Krywałd. At present we can find the only traces of the former splendour of the plant, which was functioning for over 120 years, first as “Lignoza”, and then “Krywałd-ERG”. This trace can be found in the impressive building of the management near Zwycięstwa Street, neo-gothic St Barbara’s Chapel and the parish church named after Saint Anthony, located in the building of former guildhall..

The rapid development of Knurów falls on the turn of 19th and 20th century. The rich deposits of coal was finding and then was taken a decision to build a coke plant and a mine.

Old buildings - colonyAs a result, in years 1900-1921 in the northern-eastern part of Knurów four colonies for clerks and workers were set up. In the scale of the country they are unique exam-ples of so-called patron settlements, erected in the vicinity of plants. The creator and designer of the colonies in Knurów was a world-known German urban planner Karl Henrici. These complex had regular geometrical arrangement. Until today the facilities haveCity hospital retained a specific character of countryside development with elements of garden layout (e.g. III Colony in the vicinity of Dworcowa, Ogrodowa, Słoniny and neighbouring streets).

Apart from residential houses, the accompanying infrastructure was gradually extended. In 1908 the first railway line was started, in 1912 one of the most characteristic buildings – Infirmary of Bracka Company (at present Municipal Hospital in Niepodległości Street) was built. In the town centre, near Niepodległości and 1-go Maja Street several, mostly modernist tenement houses were erected and in years 1928-29 a city hall was built. At the junction of Ks. Koziełka and Dworcowa Street has been preserved the chapel of Saint Jan Nepomucen, founded in 1919. In the immediate vicinity stands out a massive outline of Saint Cyryl and Metody Church with original interiors designed by Henryk Burzec – a sculptor from Zakopane.


Church of Saints Cyril and MethodiusFavourable development of the town was interrupted by the outbreak of the second world war, which marked tragic mark on the history of Knurów. On early morning of 1st September 1939 Polish voluntary forces, made up of former Silesian insurgents, offered resistance to the overwhelming Nazi troops. One of the killed was the commander of the Knurów part of defence sector. An obelisk memoranding those events is located in the premises of Municipal Primary School no.3, in the street named after the commander – Feliks Michalski. Old shopping centre Mercury

The period of occupation lasting over 5 years ended when in January 1945 the Soviet army forces marched into the town. However, their arrival started a wave of Stalin repressions that the local people were subjected to in spite of Polish roots. Today’s buildings of Municipal Primary School no. 2 in Szpitalna Street functioned as a transition camp for the interned and people to be deported to the outback of the USSR. In front of the entrance to the building was placed a plaque commemorating the Upper-Silesian Tragedy. 

After this situation in the country had gradually stabilised, the post-war period brought considerable transformations such as: industry development, opening of the second coal-mine in Szczygłowice in 1961, building of new housing estates with social infrastructure or fast demographic changes connected with the influx of new workers. These phenomena caused considerable changes in the landscape of Knurów.